If you are teaching, you will need to attend to all forms of learning in students, whether inner or outward. Recasting learning as the acquisition of knowledge and the development of understanding, this approach emphasizes reading and lecture as learning modalities. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. The teacher calls on her and she makes her comment (the reinforcement). (Ed.). Consider the following examples. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Learning and behavior, 6th edition. 1 Psikologi Pendidikan Educational Psychology Theory into Practice By Robert E Slavin, 1977. Educational psychology involves the study of how people learn, including topics such as student outcomes, the instructional process, individual differences in learning, gifted learners, and learning disabilities. Even the usually restless child sitting still for five minutes may have been reinforced partly by this brief experience of unusually focused activity, even if he was also reinforced by the teacher aide’s compliment. Constructivist theories take a learner-centered approach, in which the teacher serves as a guide — rather than the source of — the student’s learning. In K-12 schools, these experiences often take the form of field trips or projects. The track student was reinforced not only by the pleasure of running itself, but also by knowledge of his improved times and speeds. Skinner and other behavioral psychologists experimented with using various reinforcers and operants. But of course, no one said that teaching is easy! In classrooms, cues are sometimes provided by the teacher deliberately, and sometimes simply by the established routines of the class. Such reasoning is regarded as an outgrowth of years of interacting with the environment very concretely. Behaviorism relies on the prediction or analysis of behavior based on causal stimuli, while education uses the process of positive and negative reinforcement to encourage or discourage behaviors. The experientialist understanding of the learning process as a dynamic feedback loop often shapes how educators plan their lessons. At some point we all use this perspective, whether we call it “behaviorism” or something else. But whatever the child’s age, ability to learn waits or depends upon the child’s stage of development. Dewey, J. Applied behavior analysis for teachers, 7th edition. An introduction to theories of human development. From these collective revisions and additions the child gradually constructs whole new schemata about birds, butterflies, and other flying objects. So do not make up your mind about the relative merits of different learning theories yet! The former involves natural responses to environmental stimuli, while the latter involves the reinforcement of a response to stimuli. To create our rankings, we've developed a methodology by compiling relevant indicators from national databases about postsecondary... Psychology.org is an advertising-supported site. Online psychology degrees are versatile programs, preparing students for a range of careers. But more about this issue later! Behaviorist models of learning may be helpful in understanding and influencing what students do, but teachers usually also want to know what students are thinking, and how to enrich what students are thinking. A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives. Published online: 03 Nov 2020. Skinner’s Operant Conditioning Theory 5. Skinner observed the behavior of rather tame laboratory rats (not the unpleasant kind that sometimes live in garbage dumps). Through this process of conditioning, people learn to either repeat or avoid behaviors. For teachers, however, the most important finding may be this: partial or intermittent schedules of reinforcement generally cause learning to take longer, but also cause extinction of learning to take longer. Constructivists agree that learners create knowledge rather than passively receiving it, and that preexisting knowledge plays a crucial role in their learning. This dual principle is important for teachers because so much of the reinforcement we give is partial or intermittent. This fact makes sense, given the nature of public education: to a large extent, teaching is about making certain consequences (like praise or marks) depend on students’ engaging in certain activities (like reading certain material or doing assignments). One strategy that teachers often find helpful is to organize the content to be learned as systematically as possible, because doing this allows the teacher to select and devise learning activities that are better tailored to students’ cognitive abilities, or that promote better dialogue, or both. Put in more social constructivist terms, the teacher arranges a zone of proximal development that allows the student to compare species successfully, but the student still has to construct or appropriate the comparisons for him or herself. A twelfth-grade student—a member of the track team—runs one mile during practice (the operant). New York: Longman. An early expression of this viewpoint came from the American psychologist Jerome Bruner (1960, 1966, 1996), who became convinced that students could usually learn more than had been traditionally expected as long as they were given appropriate guidance and resources. But if that cue does not occur—if the student is not called on—speaking may not be rewarded. Social Cognitive Theory. Ferster, C., Skinner, B. F., Cheney, C., Morse, W., & Dews, D. Schedules of reinforcement. Assuming that changes in behavior signify learning, methodological behaviorists see no fundamental difference between human and animal learning processes, and they often conduct comparative research on animals. Behaviorist learning theory distinguishes between classical and operative conditioning. Another psychologist named Lev Vygotsky proposed a seminal learning theory that has gone on to become very influential, especially in the field of education. Pavlov’s Contribution to Learning Theory 3. If a student tells a joke to classmates and they laugh at it, then the student is likely to tell more jokes in the future and so on. Individuals may also work collaboratively and receive feedback from their peers and instructors. If I am a student who is being complimented (reinforced) for contributing to discussions, I must also learn to discriminate when to make verbal contributions from when not to make them—such as when classmates or the teacher are busy with other tasks. Meanwhile, colleges offer undergraduates internships and study abroad programs, and graduate schools often incorporate practicum experiences that allow students to apply what they have learned in other courses. While late 20th century cognitivist theories tend to reduce a learner to a passive receptacle, social constructivism believes learners actively hypothesize about their environment and test these hypotheses through social negotiations. Meanwhile, behaviorist insights underlie many of the teaching methods still used today in homes, classrooms, workplaces, and other contexts. Behaviorism is a perspective on learning that focuses on changes in individuals’ observable behaviors— changes in what people say or do. Using the computer as a metaphor for the human mind, cognitivists see learning as a product of mental faculties and activities, including thought, knowledge, memory, motivation, reflection, and problem-solving. Generalization is a lot like the concept of transfer discussed early in this chapter, in that it is about extending prior learning to new situations or contexts. When a student reads a book for the sheer enjoyment of reading, for example, he is reinforced by the reading itself, and we we can say that his reading is “intrinsically motivated.” More often, however, operant conditioning stimulates both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation at the same time. The good news is that the benefits of my praising students’ constructive behavior will be more lasting, because they will not extinguish their constructive behaviors immediately if I fail to support them every single time they happen. In addition to knowing what is to be learned, the expert (i.e. 4. There are 5 overarching paradigms of educational learning theories; behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism, design/brain-based, humanism and 21st Century skills. This framework often is called social constructivism or sociocultural theory. In this view, human behavior reflects internal processing of the human mind, rather than simply a conditioned response to external stimuli. At the same time, though, note that each student probably was also extrinsically motivated, meaning that another part of the reinforcement came from consequences or experiences not inherently part of the activity or behavior itself. (Eds.). Pastoral In education and psychology , learning theories help us … Constructivism is also evident in popular classroom practices, such as having students create their own questions, welcoming multiple points of view and intelligence styles, and using group work as a collaborative learning tool. A student who stops receiving gold stars or compliments for prolific reading of library books, for example, may extinguish (i.e. The first set of theories focuses on the innateness of motivation. Positive stimuli — or “rewards” — create positive associations between the reward and a given behavior; these associations prompt one to repeat that behavior. Cognitive psychology emerged in the 1950s and became dominant in the 1960s. Generalization refers to the incidental conditioning of behaviors similar to an original operant. This led to new metaphors for learning as a “participation” and “social negotiation.”. By placing an emphasis on activities that prompt effective perception and processing, educators can activate the learner’s prior experience, demonstrate a new skill for the learner, ask the learner to practice the skill, and then invite application of those skills in practical scenarios. John Dewey, Jean Piaget, Lev Vygotsky, and Jerome Bruner. Cognitivism emphasizes the importance of an expert in transmitting accurate information, yet sees a learner’s success or failure in absorbing this information as largely dependent upon the learner’s mental capacity, motivation, beliefs, and effort. Learning involves the integration of information into a stored and usable body of knowledge. In cognitivism theory, learning occurs when the student reorganises information, either by finding new explanations or adapting old ones. He notes the time it takes him as well as his increase in speed since joining the team (the reinforcement). For example, although older people have accumulated more knowledge, they do not always remain as teachable due to their tendency to adopt a more fixed outlook over time. editorial. Another recent example of psychological constructivism is the cognitive theory of Jean Piaget (Piaget, 2001; Gruber & Voneche, 1995). Even as a beginner, there are times when it is more important to be able to describe how to drive or to cook than to actually do these things. Lave and Wenger, on the other hand, view the diversity in knowledge levels as the best asset to a community of practice. Toward a theory of instruction. In the preschool years the experts are usually parents; after the school years begin, the experts broaden to include teachers. Social constructivism sees abstract thinking emerging from dialogue between a relative novice (a child or youth) and a more experienced expert (a parent or teacher). (2005). Among the most important concepts to understand are the following: The paragraphs below explain each of these briefly, as well as their relevance to classroom teaching and learning. If the expert is skilled and motivated to help, then the expert arranges experiences that let the novice to practice crucial skills or to construct new knowledge. These changes allow you to transfer some of your responsibilities for arranging learning to the students themselves. A student who clowns around inappropriately in class, for example, may not be “supported” by classmates’ laughter every time it happens, but only some of the time. He called such support instructional scaffolding—literally meaning a temporary framework like the ones used to construct buildings and that allow a much stronger structure to be built within it. The theoretical differences are related to three ideas in particular: the relationship of learning and long-term development, the role or meaning of generalizations and abstractions during development, and the mechanism by which development occurs. Understanding facts, interpreting information. Emphasizing learner attention, motivation, and memory, Bandura encourages educators to use natural tendencies toward observation, modeling, and imitation when designing learning situations. Bruner, J. Key concepts about operant conditioning: Operant conditioning is made more complicated, but also more realistic, by several additional ideas. In each example, it is reasonable to assume that the student felt intrinsically motivated to some partial extent, even when reward came from outside the student as well. This school of thought emerged in the 1970s out of the influence of the learner-centered and interactive foci of constructivism and social learning theories. List three things Goldilocks did in the three bears’ house. In more everyday, non-behaviorist terms, the cue allows the student to learn when it is acceptable to speak, and when it is not. As a result, teachers account for the demographics of their classrooms as much as they do lesson planning. The ideas form a “screen” through which to understand and evaluate whatever psychology has to offer education. Vygotsky called the difference between solo performance and assisted performance the zone of proximal development (or ZPD for short)—meaning, figuratively speaking, the place or area of immediate change. Educational psychologists study learners and learning contexts — both within and beyond traditional classrooms — and evaluate ways in which factors such as age, culture, gender, and physical and social environments influence human learning. Connectivism is the newest educational learning theory. The idea of “democracy,” for example, may be experienced simply as an empty concept. and the major learning theories (behaviorism, Piaget, Vygotsky, Bruner), as related to educational psychology and the implications to teaching. Obviously a child does not begin life with a lot of initial language skill, but this fact is why interactions need to be scaffolded with more experienced experts— people capable of creating a zone of proximal development in their conversations and other interactions. Behaviorist learning theories first emerged in the late 19th century from the work of Edward Thorndike and Ivan Pavlov. In the original conditioning experiments, Skinner’s rats were sometimes cued by the presence or absence of a small electric light in their cage. As students gain experience as students, they become able to think about how they themselves learn best, and you (as the teacher) can encourage such self-reflection as one of your goals for their learning. Such environmental influences include associations, reinforcements, punishments, and observations. The rest of this chapter describes key ideas from each of these viewpoints. The distinction is rough and inexact, but a good place to begin. Download Full PDF Package. From this perspective a teacher should limit the amount of thinking about abstract ideas that she expects from students. First emerging in the late 20th century, social and contextual learning theories challenge the individual-focused approaches evident in both constructivism and cognitivism. As explained in the next section, both focus on individuals’ thinking rather than their behavior, but they have distinctly different implications for teaching. In a comment that has been quoted widely (and sometimes disputed), Bruner wrote: “We [constructivist educators] begin with the hypothesis that any subject can be taught effectively in some intellectually honest form to any child at any stage of development.” (1960, p. 33). Constructivism: Theory, perspectives, and practice, 2nd edition. (1995). These relationships are diagrammed in Exhibit 2. The efforts of today’s teachers to connect students’ new and preexisting knowledge aligns with social and contextual learning. Predict some of the things that Goldilocks might have used if she had entered your house. Educational psychology has been built upon theories of operant conditioning, functionalism, structuralism, constructivism, humanistic psychology, Gestalt psychology, and information processing. Someone who has played very little chess, for example, will probably compete against an opponent better if helped by an expert chess player than if competing against the opponent alone. Gruber, H. & Voneche, J. Any significant new learning requires setting aside, giving up, or revising former learning, and this step inevitably therefore “disturbs” thinking, if only in the short term and only in a relatively minor way. Operant conditioning. The preschooler who initially generalizes the concept of bird to include any flying object, for example, eventually revises the concept to include only particular kinds of flying objects, such as robins and sparrows, and not others, like mosquitoes or airplanes. Self-reflection — a widely used cognitivist technique — helps students think about and transform their understanding of the subject at hand. Another kindergarten child blurts out her comment without being called on (the operant). The main idea of psychological constructivism is that a person learns by mentally organizing and reorganizing new information or experiences. Assimilation is therefore a bit like the idea of generalization in operant conditioning, or the idea of transfer described at the beginning of this chapter. When acting or reacting to his or her surroundings, the child has relatively little language skill initially. Presto! By assigning a more active role to expert helpers—which by implication includes teachers—than does the psychological constructivism, social constructivism may be more complete as a description of what teachers usually do when actually busy in classrooms, and of what they usually hope students will experience there. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. For starters, therefore, consider two perspectives about learning, called behaviorism (learning as changes in overt behavior) and constructivism, (learning as changes in thinking). As some of the comments above indicate, psychological and social constructivism have differences that suggest different ways for teachers to teach most effectively. Explore Careers in Educational Psychology. Partly for this reason, his theory is often considered less about learning and more about development, or long-term change in a person resulting from multiple experiences that may not be planned deliberately. Educational psychologists apply theories of human development to understand individual learning and inform the instructional process. If a student gets gold stars for reading library books, then we may find her reading more of other material as well—newspapers, comics, etc.–even if the activity is not reinforced directly. Contemporary experientialists are interested in how a learner’s engagement and testing of new skills or concepts influences their learning environment, which creates a larger feedback loop that shapes the world in which we live. Once the inappropriate behavior is learned, though, it will take somewhat longer to disappear even if everyone—both teacher and classmates—make a concerted effort to ignore (or extinguish) it. As assimilation and accommodation about birds and other flying objects operate together over time, the child does not just revise and add to his vocabulary (such as acquiring a new word, “butterfly”), but also adds and remembers relevant new experiences and actions. Assimilation is the interpretation of new information in terms of pre-existing concepts, information or ideas. Metacognition can sometimes be difficult for students to achieve, but it is an important goal for social constructivist learning because it gradually frees learners from dependence on expert teachers to guide their learning. Select the part of the story where Goldilocks seemed most comfortable. This view challenges both the behaviorist notion of the learner as a blank slate and the cognitivist notion of learning as the acquisition of objective information from an expert. Individual motivation is influenced by thoughts, beliefs, and values. Social constructivism — associated with Vygotsky’s emphasis on social context — posits that students learn naturally through a process of discovery. However, two differing strands of constructivism bear mentioning. Israel, S. Log in | Register Cart. Discrimination means learning not to generalize. One of the pioneers in the field was a Harvard professor named B. F. Skinner, who published numerous books and articles about the details of the process and who pointed out many parallels between operant conditioning in animals and operant conditioning in humans (1938, 1948, 1988). For this goal of teaching, some of the best help comes from constructivism, which is a perspective on learning focused on how students actively create (or “construct”) knowledge out of experiences. On constructivist epistemology. In respondent conditioning, however, the schedule in question is the pattern by which the conditioned stimulus is paired with the unconditioned stimulus. Robert Slavin. Vygotsky, L. (1978). Frequently or rarely? For the biology student mentioned above, for example, you may be able not only to plan activities that support comparing species, but also to devise ways for the student to think about how he or she might learn the same information independently. Reinforcement was associated with pressing a lever when, and only when, the light was on. Rogers posits that humans are more likely to learn and retain information when they participate actively in the learning process. Salkind, N. (2004). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. London, UK: Routledge. Following Piaget, cognitive constructivism acknowledges age-based developmental learning stages and articulates learning as an expansion (through assimilation and accommodation processes) of a learner’s experientially informed mental model of their world. This latter fact may contribute to an impression that sometimes occurs, that operant conditioning is really just “bribery in disguise,” that only the external reinforcements operate on students’ behavior. Combining elements or parts into a new object, idea, or procedure. If a teacher praises me for my work, does she do it every time, or only sometimes? Operant conditioning focuses on how the consequences of a behavior affect the behavior over time. Educational psychology : theory into practice / by Robert E. Slavin. One of the most widely used frameworks for organizing content, for example, is a classification scheme proposed by the educator Benjamin Bloom, published with the somewhat imposing title of Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: Handbook #1: Cognitive Domain (Bloom, et al., 1956; Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001). The theories are: 1. Traditional theories. Abstract thinking is possible, according to psychological constructivism, but it emerges relatively slowly and relatively late in development, after a person accumulates considerable concrete experience. They also experimented with various patterns of reinforcement (or schedules of reinforcement), as well as with various cues or signals to the animal about when reinforcement was available. Young children, for example, can not only engage in science experiments like creating a “volcano” out of baking soda and water, but also discuss and speculate about their observations of the experiment. In more everyday (but also less precise) terms, Piaget might then say that “the child has learned more about birds.”, Exhibit 1 diagrams the relationships among the Piagetian version of psychological constructivist learning. Piaget described learning as interplay between two mental activities that he called assimilation and accommodation. Walden Two. (1960). For convenience these are called psychological constructivism and social constructivism (or sometimes sociocultural theory). Today in modern era, education psychology is the foundation of education. As the name implies, it is grounded in the notion that people learn and grow by forming connections. The selection of behavior: The operant behaviorism of B. F. Skinner. A teacher can facilitate the learning process by engaging students through an experience, but they cannot control exactly what students learn from that experience. This fact makes the psychological constructivism valuable in its own way, even though it (and a few other learning theories as well) may seem to omit mentioning teachers, parents, or experts in detail. Difference Between Psychology and Psychiatry, Best Online Psychology Degree Programs 2021, Best Online Psychology Bachelor’s Degree Programs 2021, Best Graduate Degree Programs in Clinical Psychology 2021, Best Psychology Graduate Degree Programs Online 2021, © 2021 Psychology.org, a Red Ventures Company. Bloom’s taxonomy, as it is usually called, describes six kinds of learning goals that teachers can in principle expect from students, ranging from simple recall of knowledge to complex evaluation of knowledge. So each perspective suggests things that you might do in your classroom to make students’ learning more productive. Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), implemented today in various domains from education and communication to psychology, refers to the acquisition of knowledge by direct observation, interaction, experiences, and outside media influence (Bryant, & Oliver, 2002). of the Special Interest Group on Teaching Educational Psychology (TEP SIG) sponsored by the American Educational Research Association. Explore and learn 100+ theories here. Behaviorism also influences the sequence and methods used during the teaching and learning process. Calling on a student to speak, for example, can be a cue that if the student does say something at that moment, then he or she may be reinforced with praise or acknowledgment. Language and dialogue therefore are primary, and development is seen as happening as a result—the converse of the sequence pictured by Piaget. Behaviorist theories ascribe to a reductionist approach, which dictates that breaking behavior down into parts is the best way to understand it. EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Educational psychology is the study of how people learn. (1938/1998). A student who used to be reinforced for acting like a clown in class may stop clowning once classmates stop paying attention to the antics. Other schools of thought critique behaviorism for underemphasizing biological and unconscious factors, denying free will, equating humans with animals, and overlooking internal learning processes or types of learning that occur without reinforcement. Behaviorism is a perspective on learning that focuses on changes in individuals’ Although Dewey himself did not use the term constructivism in most of his writing, his point of view amounted to a type of constructivism, and he discussed in detail its implications for educators. Consistent with the ideas above, psychological constructivism tends to see a relatively limited role for abstract or hypothetical reasoning in the life of children—and even in the reasoning of youth and many adults. (1996). This circumstance limits the child’s ability to learn in the usual, school-like sense of the term. The teaching assistant compliments him for working hard (the reinforcement). Several ideas and priorities, then, affect how we teachers think about learning, including the curriculum, the difference between teaching and learning, sequencing, readiness, and transfer. Watson’s Behaviourism in Learning Theory 2. The rise of technology presents both challenges and opportunities for connection. This article throws light upon the top five theories of learning. Skinner called the changes in the rat’s behavior an example of operant conditioning, and gave special names to the different parts of the process. decrease or stop) book-reading behavior. Fosnot, C. They believe that learning depends on a group’s effective use of cooperation, trust, understanding, and problem-solving to produce beneficial learning outcomes for the community. The dialogue must, of course, honor a child’s need for intellectual scaffolding or a zone of proximal development. Whether you think of yourself as a psychological constructivist or a social constructivist, there are strategies for helping students help in develop their thinking—in fact the strategies constitute a major portion of this book, and are a major theme throughout the entire preservice teacher education programs. Educational psychology involves the study of how people learn, including topics such as student outcomes, instructional procedures, personal differences in learning, gifted learners or learning disabilities. Desire to learn to stimuli balance lectures with activities that he called assimilation accommodation. Psychologists experimented with using various reinforcers and operants unconditioned stimulus teacher ’ s thoughts naturally through a of. Ways for teachers concerned both about motivating students and about minimizing inappropriate behaviors cognitivists! 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